Intro to eyeball planets
How wonderful person this is, Anton, and today we’re going to be talking about new discoveries in regards to potentially some of the most common planets in a galaxy, but the planets we do not have in the solar system, planets that might look kind of like this or maybe kind of like this-
And you might have seen this before, because this is a concept we’ve talked about in many different videos, and officially this is known as the eyeball planets, and it’s a concept scientists came up with, I think, about six to maybe seven years ago, plus a week before that as well, but it really became prominent and really popular because of the discovery from trappist-1 system and because of all of these aneuro, very similar planets, terrestrial planets that the scientists have been discovering and a lot of different star systems in the Milky Way, especially by telescopes like Tas and so on.
All of these planets, it seem to be terrestrial.
They seem to be very similar in Mass to planet Earth.
Many even seem to have very similar density.
But there are two main differences.
Unlike planet Earth that we’re going to be talking about in a few seconds, these planets orbit around what’s known as red dwarfs, m-type stars, and they orbit very, very close to those Stars.
A typical orbit here would be in just a few days instead of months or years like in the solar system.
Likewise, pretty much all these planets are assumed to be tidally locked.
They seem to be always facing with the same side toward the star, with one side being obviously extremely hot and the other side being extremely cold.
And though some planets might resemble something like this, with one side basically be in a desert but the other side, on the warmer side, maybe having some kind of a very dark liquid Ocean on the surface, a lot of them are also believed to maybe resemble this an eyeball.
The warmer side has liquid ocean.
The darker side essentially has prominent ice caps, although some Studies have also suggested that we might have very comfortable conditions in the area known as The Twilight Zone- not the TV show, but the area right between the dark side and the bright side.
But all this is obviously still very hypothetical and doesn’t actually have physical proof just yet.
We might have some from Jamesville Space Telescope, maybe in the next year or so.
At the moment, though, the preliminary discoveries from, for example, the closest planet, trappist-1b, seem to be that well, there doesn’t seem to be anything there: no atmosphere, no water.
New study discovers something strange
Possibly with the preliminary discoveries from other planets, suggesting something somewhat similar , but nothing exact just yet.
Obviously, though, you might have heard all of this before, because none of this is really new discoveries, but this paper changes things a little bit, based on various simulations.
Once again, the scientists discovered something else extremely peculiar about many of these planets that potentially applies to all of them, and, if this paper is correct, we might have to start questioning our previous assumptions once again.
Do eyeball planets exist?
Now, you might have already figured out what we’re talking about, especially if it’s in the title of the video, but essentially, what the scientists discovered is that sometimes, especially if these stars have multiple planets, these planets don’t stay permanently locked to the main star.
They actually Flip, Flip 1000, that you can change their Spin and their orbit, literally turning the bright side into the dark side and vice versa, or, I guess, inversing the eyeball.
The dark side becomes bright, the bright side becomes dark, and, according to these simulations, it’s not something that happens once or twice.
Simulating this with Earth
It seems to be a pretty common occurrence, something that might only take a few years to happen and something that might last for several hundred or several thousand years, which means that this is a pretty important and possibly a pretty groundbreaking discovery, but before we talk about this, I actually wanted to First simulate this using Universe Sandbox, just to actually see what happens to, for example, hypothetical Earth that, in this case, is also tidally locked to our sun.
And so, basically, in this hypothetical Earth, as you can sort of see from this simulation, we also have a kind of a Twilight area right in the middle, and that will have the dark side that’s practically entirely covered in ice caps, and the bright side that’s super, super hot, dramatically hotter than anywhere else on the planet, although not hot enough to make water boil just yet.
So there’s still some water on the surface.
And so, in this case, I wanted to actually simulate what might happen to such a planet if we were to suddenly flip, like the scientists believe it happens, although according to this tiny, it can only happen in multiple planetary systems- especially when these planets are extremely close to one another and when they acquire what’s known as mean motion resonance, also referred to as Mmr, or basically planets start influencing one another because of the gradational interactions due to their proximity, or, in other words, if this was a lonely planet that didn’t have a lot of Partners next to it, such as, in this case, planet Earth, it would most likely have a permanent dayside and a prominent Nightside.
Why this happens
But if this title Planet, just like trappist-1 planets, had a lot of Partners, it can physically break the spin orbit synchronization Wood Planet becoming very erratic, eventually resulting in a flip.
And that’s because in space, spinning objects start to act differently, especially when they’re not perfect.
Here’s the a really famous example, using spinning T handles, when they start flipping from one orientation to another as the moment of inertia changes.
And in some sense this is kind of similar to what happens when planets have various gravitational interactions with their partners.
And so in this case, as we flip the planet, pretty much the opposite starts to occur.
We have Africa now becoming much colder and freezing, even though it was super hot before, and the other side almost instantly acquiring liquid oceans, and within just a couple years, pretty much everything starts to transform.
Now let’s actually maybe wait 10 years or so just to see how all this looks afterwards.
And so after just 11 years, we get the opposite type of an Eyeball Planet.
If I were to remove the atmosphere, here’s how all this would look like.
You have the really large exposed Ocean and the South and North America in really, really hot conditions, and you can actually even see where the so-called Twilight area starts, with a part of South America being very hot and the other part being a little bit more hospitable, and something similar happens in North America as well.
And then we have the very, very large ice cap on the other side and a really large ocean now entirely exposed to the Sun.
So, basically, the temperature reverses completely after just a few years, but this is, of course, assuming that this happens perfectly and within just a few years.
However, as the paper suggests, all of this is sort of unpredictable and really depends on certain conditions, certain positions of planets, and even leads to very chaotic periods where the planet sort of wobbles around.
Could life survive here?
That can even last for hundreds of years, and so, even though some of these planets can become unlocked and then re-locked in the completely opposite direction, in some cases a planet could have a stable configuration for about 100 000 years and then flip suddenly, exposing a different side- all of these simulations also show that in most cases, once again, and about 30 percent of cases- most planets would assume stable enough conditions for thousands of years, allowing them to establish some kind of a permanent climate, but there was no actual limit to how long this can last, or even a pattern that would be applicable to all these planets and theoretically sounding Spirits might be long enough for certain types of life to evolve and to develop, although in those cases some of this life would have to adapt to some extreme changes at any time.
But depending on the location of this planet and depending on the average temperature, it’s not far-fetched to assume that life can still kind of maybe exist here.
For example, here on planet Earth, it’s really only in the last 12 000 years that we suddenly found ourselves in a relatively stable climate conditions that allowed Humanity to evolve so quickly.
But if you look at the average temperature on Earth in the last 500 million years, the conditions here did change quite dramatically, potentially for many different reasons.
Despite of this, life was still able to evolve here, which means that even for these planets it could still happen, as long as permanent conditions can last for at least a few thousand, possibly a few million years.
What does this mean for eyeball planets?
But a very important Discovery here is that it really means that all this depends on the actual structure and the architecture of the star system.
There’s no one formula that applies to all planets, or we can kind of predict or explain what’s happening there and what sort of climate they might have.
So, for example, even though some planets in the Trap is, one system might be able to maintain relatively comfortable conditions long term.
Currently, a lot of them have a very high chance of experiencing these flipping effects which would lead to dramatic changes in the climate, possibly every few 10 or 100 000 years.
And in your life that does evolve here will have to be extremely adaptable to these sudden changes, which basically helps us see these planets in a very different light.
The conditions here don’t seem to be as prominent as we initially thought, with some more Dynamic ones possibly having these changes even every few actual Earth years.
So basically, imagine living on the planet where it’s very, very cold for, let’s just say, 10, 100 years or so and suddenly within a year everything changes and it becomes ridiculously hot.
Or I guess another way of seeing this.
You can have a planet with a really really hot, really dry surface where it sort of lasts for possibly 900 years or so, then suddenly becoming very, very cold, very, very dark for possibly just as long.
But only some of these virus might experience these really dramatic changes, varying between, I guess, an ice age and a very, very hot desert age.
Some of the father planets, even in the Trappist-1 system, would actually not receive enough heat to influence them just as much, simply because they are really far away from the Star, and so the temperature variation in this case also makes a bit of a difference.
Nevertheless, this is a pretty intriguing Discovery, and something that not a lot of scientists have been previously considering when doing all of this research on a lot of threshold planets orbiting that typical Red Dwarf, even the closest acts applying to us.
Proxima Centauri is one of these planets, although that one doesn’t seem to have any Partners, so it’s not entirely clear if it’s going to go through this as well, but the more Partners the planet has and the more gravitational interaction they have between them, the more likely they’re going to experience the sunny roll flipping effect.
For now, though, because this is all based on simulations, until future observations with various telescopes, or until future discoveries using more models, we’re actually not going to know what inspirational like.
At the moment, though, they do seem to be very different from anything we ever imagined and, most importantly, extremely not Earth-like.
These planets do seem to experience so many different effects that planet earth has never experienced in its lifetime.
But because these planets are so common in the entire galaxy and because a lot of scientists are trying to solve the mystery of the origin of Life, studying these planets is obviously really important.
But until we learn something else, that’s pretty much all I wanted to mention.
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