Space isn’t only about the light of billions of stars and galaxies.
It’s also about massive blind spots with previously unexplored objects hidden within.
Only now are scientists beginning to discover these invisible Giants, which are tens or even thousands of times larger than our galaxy.
Well, some of them are so close that they literally pull the Milky Way towards them.
What will happen, though, when we find ourselves on the other side of space blind spots?
Scientists are making more and more intriguing discoveries in the so-called zone of avoidance.
This blind spot of Galactic size was discovered by accident.
In 1786, the English astronomer William Herschel published his famous catalog of nebulae and clusters of stars, and other scientists eventually noticed that the so-called spiral nebulae scattered over most of the sky for some reason don’t occur in its very center, that is, in the star-rich core of the Milky Way and along its disk.
The English astronomer Richard Proctor called this anomalous region a zone of few nebulae, but this term didn’t catch on, giving way to a better sounding one zone of avoidance.
So the scientific World decided that all spiral nebulae, for some unknown reason, either avoid one part of the sky or are being completely destroyed by something unknown.
Yet the truth turned out to be more intriguing.
In 1925, the legendary astronomer Edwin Hubble proved that one of the most famous spiral nebula, Andromeda, is actually a Galaxy just like the Milky Way.
ZONE OF GALACTIC OBSCURATION
So the zone of avoidance was actually the zone of Galactic obscuration.
There’s simply so much Interstellar gas and dust from the disk of the Milky Way in front of our telescopes, the most impossible to see the galactic inhabitants of deep space through them.
They carefully avoid our telescopes and although this blind Zone doesn’t seem so big, it actually hides up to 20 percent of the observable universe from us.
Moreover, buying unexpected coincidence, it’s the part towards which the Milky Way itself is moving.
It’s like someone running a paint roller across your car’s windshield and making you drive like that through busy streets.
But if on Earth you can easily eliminate this blind Zone at the nearest car wash, astronomers couldn’t do anything with the galactic zone of avoidance until they made an unexpected discovery.
In the late 50s, Italian astrophysicist Paolo Mafe tried to make standard photographic plates more sensitive.
He did it so well that he managed to photograph two massive galaxies in the zone of avoidance.
They’re part of the nearest cluster to us, about 10 million light years away, and they were even named after Mafe, which is extremely rare, right, but how could an astrophysicist break through this blind Zone?
Thanks to infrared waves, they can penetrate the gas and dust clouds of the Milky Way, although not very far.
As time passed, astronomers began to use other types of invisible light to penetrate the Milky Way’s gas and dust curtain, and it finally revealed a whole Lost World of galaxies to us.
If this amazing hidden Galaxy hadn’t fallen into our zone of avoidance, it would have competed in brightness and Beauty with Andromeda itself.
What a Pity.
This small spiral galaxy was first found using radio waves and only later was it captured by Ultra sensitive infrared telescopes.
And 20 plus million light years away, this exclusive Stellar fireworks display can be enjoyed only by x-ray observatories like Chandra.
In its turn, with help of radio telescopes like the one at parks observatory in Australia, we’ve been able to detect about 900 previously invisible galaxies in the zone of avoidance, millions of light years away from Earth.
But all these are just scattered pieces of the puzzle, because even revolutionary methods of observation didn’t allow scientists to accurately calculate the parameters of hidden galaxies and thus put together any coherent picture of the mysterious region of the universe beyond the main blind spot in the night sky.
But in 20- 22, a team of scientists led by Argentinian astronomer Daniela Galdiano was finally able to breach the depths of the zone of avoidance.
With the help of a massive array of data from different observatories, the researchers managed to discover a gigantic extra Galactic structure previously completely hidden.
There have been no such huge discoveries for many decades.
In fact, it’s a – gravitationally bound cluster of 9 to 58 galaxies at a distance of 2 billion 700 million light years from Earth.
That is 10 times further than all the previous objects in the zone of avoidance, and, according to astronomers, something among them is sucking the Milky Way right now.
But in order to have a chance to see this Beast properly, scientists had to practice their observation techniques on smaller blind spots.
How did we manage to find thousands of planets where telescopes are literally blind?
Back in the 18th century, Sir Isaac Newton confidently stated that other stars have planets around them, just like the sun.
However, even the best telescopes of that time couldn’t see them.
After all, each star with its bright light creates a blind Zone around itself in which celestial bodies the size of Earth, or even Jupiter, can hide from us.
And even when Nasa launched the Hubble Space Telescope into orbit in 1990, it turned out to be just as powerless in front of the Stellar Veil as all of its predecessors.
The search for exoplanets already seemed like a hopeless task for scientists when suddenly, in 1992, two astronomers, Alexander volchan and Dale frail, announced the discovery of Two Worlds outside the solar system at once.
But how did they do it?
It’s just that the scientists didn’t look at the bright living star.
Instead, they listened to a dead one.
This Pulsar, 2 300 light years away from Earth, was officially named Lich.
In fact, it’s a highly radioactive Stellar corpse spewing powerful beams of radio waves with a frequency of about six milliseconds.
In listening to them, with the help of the Arecibo radio Observatory, Volcan and frail notice glitches in the pulses of ledge, and, as it turned out, they were caused by a poltergeist.
I mean seriously, that’s what they call the largest exoplanet of Lich, where the second one was called fobatore, named after the ancient Greek spirit that comes to people in their dreams.
In this incredible Discovery told astronomers how to finally overcome exoplanetary blindness.
Instead of vainly peering into the illuminated space around the star, it’s better to study its own light properly.
Indeed, its vibrations may contain imprints of exoplanets that fly between this star and Earth, and even if we look at it from a different angle, the gravity of a sufficiently massive exoplanet will cause the star to wobble slightly.
Thanks to this, humankind literally began to see clearly and, over 30 years, discovered over 5 000 exoplanets in the sky.
It was even possible to make out the most distant one, seventeen thousand light years away from us, thanks to the rare fact of gravitational microlensing when passing in front of another star.
But all this is the only close neighborhood of the solar system.
Only in our galaxy there are not thousands of exoplanets, but most likely more than a hundred billion, though finding at least one in the same zone of avoidance, that is, on the other side of the Milky Way disc, still completely impossible, even with the help of all of our scientific tricks.
But recently it turned out that even near the solar system, where everything seems to be well studied, invisible objects are literally swarming.
This picturesque molecular cloud of Roofucus is only 400 light years away from Earth, but at the end of 2021, scientists looked at this region of space through the lens of the Vista infrared telescope.
With its help, they expected to consider the birth of new stars, which are usually hidden from our eyes by dense clouds of gas and dust, but suddenly they saw a whole scattering of mysterious dim objects.
To the scientist’s surprise, in roof Yuca’s, from between 70 to 170 giant planets the size of Jupiter or more were found, but why didn’t we notice them before?
It’s just that these are rogue planets that don’t belong to any star and can’t be detected by conventional means.
Most of them were ejected into Interstellar Space by gravitational perturbations.
Astronomers now believe that, in addition to the 100 billion regular exoplanets, there must be at least another 50 billion rogue planets in our galaxy.
If such a dark Jupiter from the blind zone is hurtling towards Earth right now, we won’t notice it until it’s too late, especially since invisible outcasts can be much more massive and dangerous.
In 2021, Nasa’s wise orbiting infrared telescope accidentally spotted something huge and Incredibly fast just 50 light years away.
This so-called brown dwarf is about 15 times more massive than Jupiter.
In fact, it’s a failed star that didn’t have enough Mass to start thermonuclear reactions.
As a result, this object was nicknamed accident, and it rushes through space at a record speed of over 700 000 kilometers per hour.
That is 20 times faster than a bullet.
Just why, though, remains a mystery, but in itself the discovery of accidents suggests there’s a whole invisible world that we’re just beginning to discover around the solar system.
According to preliminary estimates, up to a hundred billion Brown dwarfs, invisible to ordinary telescopes, could be hiding in the Milky Way.
JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE
Fortunately, our new James Webb infrared Telescope with its colossal mirror and ultra-sensitive detectors, we’ll definitely be able to shed light on such objects in the many blind spots of space.
But if the problem was only in their detection.
Scientists are often baffled by the very nature of these Invisibles.
In recent years, astronomers have been encountering more and more exotic objects in the blind spot space, and they make scientists question all of our scientific knowledge.
These frightening and intriguing discoveries were made possible by the same wise orbital telescope.
In fact it’s a whole infrared Observatory.
If scientists use James Webb as a narrowly focused telescope, then with the help of wise, they scanned the entire sky in just six months, and this tremendous array of data hasn’t yet been fully explored.
It wasn’t until 10 years later that astronomers suddenly discovered an unusual object 10 000 light years away from Earth.
In the images of wise, where there was a blind spot, invisible light, a bright gas bubble appeared in Infrared.
Some kind of star was clearly hiding inside, but when the scientists calculated its parameters, they couldn’t believe their eyes.
Unlike most sun-like stars, this strange compact star doesn’t hydrogen and helium for fuel.
At the same time it shines forty thousand times brighter, creating a powerful Stellar Wind at a speed of 16 000 kilometers per second.
This is 40 times faster than our sun
And it’s an absolute space record.
But a star with such characteristics should be a clearly visible Blue Giant and not at all a shy, invisible thing behind a gaseous Veil.
Scientists were puzzled until they developed a highly exotic model of the origin of this object.
At first there were two stars here.
WHITE DWARF COLLISION
Those were tiny white dwarfs that remained after the burnout of sun-like stars.
But a few thousand years ago they collided, forming an exotic type of star rarely found in the universe.
Instead of hydrogen and helium, it burns heavy elements like carbon.
Red giants usually do this, but, as you remember, this formed by the Collision of white dwarfs is very compact.
That’s why it shines so violently and at the same time retains the ability to hide in a cloud of gas.
Astronomers believe we’re very lucky here.
In just a couple of thousand years the carbon fuel of the star will run out.
A powerful Supernova explosion will blow away the gas Veil and the invisible thing will disappear for real.
But sometimes Stars disappear for no reason other than the creation of literal blind spots in space.
It’s now that astronomers film space with ultra-sensitive digital cameras, but for almost the entire 20th century this was done with the help of analog photographic plates.
The Palomar observatory in California used them in the 1950s to create the most detailed star catalog, and even that processing hundreds of negatives.
Scientists missed some stars, but it sounded so crazy and space was so poorly studied that the discovery was put aside for a long time.
Only 70 years later, Swedish astrophysicist Beatrice via Royale retrieved the Palomar Riddle from the archives and shocked the scientific World.
These are two images of the same Sky area.
The right was taken in the late 90s and the left was taken in the 50s.
Do you notice anything unusual?
Nothing special, except the fact that Nine Stars have vanished somewhere.
Explaining their Disappearance in just half a century was already a difficult task.
However, the mysterious nine were also messing from other Palomar before and after images taken only half an hour apart before via Royale.
It was believed to be due to the contamination of photographic plates or Reflections from space to breathe that accidentally fell into the frame.
This really happens, although rarely, but to have nine different defects in one picture at once is fantastic.
Scientists began to scan this area of the sky using infrared and other telescopes to find at least something in the place of the nine objects that disappeared, for example, Supernova remnants in invisible wavelengths.
The explosion of Nine Stars at once within a few minutes is also fantastic, but it’s much better than nine inexplicable blind spots.
But all efforts were in vain.
As a result, the mysterious 9 was officially dubbed weird transients, in scientific papers, and not even stars, but star-like objects.
Translated from scientific to human.
Scientists have no idea what kind of unknown celestial bodies illuminated space for just a few minutes and then disappeared forever.
Could those be the stars from which a certain veil has fallen for a few minutes?
Either way, this is a very annoying blind spot that makes scientists pretty nervous.
However, this anomalous Blinking Star, which Lives 25 000 light years away from Earth in the dense core of the Milky Way, could bring them closer to unraveling this mystery one day.
This red giant, a hundred times more massive than our sun, seemed to almost go out, but after 200 days it suddenly reappeared.
Scientists decided that the star was obscured by its invisible but so unusual partner that it just looks incred incredible.
This object must have an enormous and very dense disk of gas and dust.
Just imagine Saturn- the size of a star.
Celestial bodies of this configuration are unknown to science, but at least they don’t affect Earth in the way the most mysterious inhabitants of the zone of avoidance does, and we’re finally ready to figure out its secret.
Some object with a mass of thousands of galaxies is now playing with the Milky Way like it’s a feather.
Did you find driving around the city with a strip across your windshield uncomfortable?
At least you could slow down or turn aside.
However, in fact you didn’t even start the engine and you’re still speeding through the streets at a speed of 600 kilometers per second on Earth.
In just 10 seconds of such a trip you’d get from New York to Los Angeles, but at the same time you would never know what kind of force carry you across the entire continent and, most importantly, what it’ll do with you next.
Astronomers discovered the anomalous speed of the Milky Way back in the 70s and concluded that the destination lies somewhere in the constellation of Centaurus, just in the zone of avoidance.
But the Intrigue intensified when it turned out that thousands more galaxies were rushing with us to the same point in the blind spot, including even those hidden Buffet galaxies.
In fact, this gravitational core formed the giant lania Kia supercluster, half a billion light years across.
THE GREAT ATTRACTOR
Impressed astronomers named The Mysterious object the great attractor and immediately began to peer into the zone of avoidance in the hope of determining what kind of gravitational Beast seeks to swallow us.
The first estimate showed that for such a strong influence on the Milky Way, the great attractor must weigh 10 000 times more than our galaxy, much heavier than even the most Ultra massive black holes, which clearly spoke of the galactic nature of the attractor.
This invisible cluster must be between 150 and 220 million light years away.
In any other region of the sky, such a gigantic structure would appear before us in all its Glory, but in the zone of avoidance it turned out to be an extremely difficult Target for telescopes.
20 years after its original Discovery, astronomers abandoned hope that they’ll ever solve the mystery of the great attractor.
It seems that it only remained to wait until the solar system made a half turn around the center of the Milky Way so that the great attractor would finally leave our zone of avoidance.
However, this will happen only after a hundred million years, and that’s far too late.
Dutch South African astronomer Renee Kron cordwag didn’t want to wait.
In 1990, Pa, using Advanced x-ray telescopes in the depths of the zone of avoidance, she discovered a huge cluster of Norma galaxies just at a distance of 220 million light years from Earth.
Its gravitational power can be judged by the appearance of this unfortunate medusa-like Galaxy.
It’s heading towards the center of the Norma cluster three times faster than the Milky Way, at a speed of 1900 kilometers per second.
Because of this, there’s an impact effect that knocks gas out of the Galaxy and in fact makes it Barren.
After all, our son was born just from such gas.
Is the Milky Way waiting for the same terrible fate?
However, further calculations showed that the normal cluster is 10 times lighter than the supposed great attractor, and yet the very similar location in the zone of avoidance, and especially The Coincidence of distances, LED scientists to believe that the normal clusters, nothing more than the core of the great attractor and its outer, more massive parts, are still invisible.
However, the following discoveries, on the contrary, shook the greatness of this mysterious Universal core.
It’s an x-ray image of the shapely Galaxy supercluster 650 million light years away from Earth that’s three times as far away as the great attractor.
Today, astronomers believe this is the most enormous monster of the zone of avoidance, with an estimated mass of 10 000 Milky Ways.
Farther away, 840 million light years away, the same astronomer, Renee Kron Cortwick, spotted the Fela supercluster, about a thousand times more massive than our own Galaxy.
So now the picture looks like this: it appears that the Milky Way speed of 600 kilometers per second is being driven by the Norma superclusters, Collective impact and shapely, unveilous super clusters.
It so happened that they’re on the same line relative to our galaxy and in the same blind Zone.
This means that the Milky Way is not waiting for a catastrophic fall to the universal core, but rather a dance between several centers of mass.
One way or another, astronomers still have too little understanding of gravitational effects on such huge scales to make an unambiguous guess.
And what if we find even more strange and massive structures in the zone of avoidance?
And they’ll once again turn our science upside down.
However, if I were an astronomer, I would pay attention not to the distant Intergalactic space, but to the closest neighborhoods of the solar system.
After all, we still can’t detect planet nine, a Celestial body 10 times more massive than Earth.
That’s affected the orbits of many objects like Sedna, and although some theories refute the existence of planet nine, I would still check the remaining blind spots properly, from where something like Neptune could fly out on us.
Not only that, did you know that, out of hundreds of millions of black holes that, according to calculations, should be wandering around our galaxy right now, over Decades of observations we’ve detected only 12..
It’s just that not a single modern telescope can directly detect them.
Only a gravitational Observatory can do this, but it doesn’t yet exist, even in draft, and such a fantastic device could shake off most of the blind spots from space.
Do you think we’ll ever be able to invent something similar?